Dr M afraid of Billionaire Daim Migration Myth


You publicly humiliated your own deputy on TV and gave explicit consent to him being unlawfully detained, interrogated, beaten half to death and charged over a crime so pathetic it made this country a laughing stock of the world.
You may not behave like a normal dictator but your past actions were enough to justify that label. You had a chance to be a statesman, sadly you squandered it big time
Democracy cannot survive in an environment of indiscipline, contempt for the rule of law and lack of respect for law enforcement agencies. In some of the western democracies, an unmanned STOP signboard at a road junction is good enough for every driver to stop the vehicle and proceed even though the road may be empty. Try ignoring the signboard and without an exception the cop will get you from where you don’t know. You can be rest assured that you will be punished on the spot. The so called tip doesn’t work there.
Collusion of the politician, bureaucracy, businessmen, the law and investigating agencies against the interest of the country and people is nothing short of treason. By involving the bureaucracy and the investigating agencies in wrong doings, what message are we sending to these government servants and agencies? What respect will they have for those who demand such acts of misdeeds of them and for those in authority? What moral authority will the government have to point a finger at these agencies and officials when they commit grave impropriety?
And the dispossessed cried for mercy.
Yet, no one heard.
“ reformasi” They yelled.
And the tyrants cried “ISA THEM KUGAN THEM!”
“Starve and beseige them!”
“Use all necessary force to bring them to submission!”
And to the world the tyrants raged: “Security!”
And the sycophants cried in defense of the tyrants.
Then Conscience spoke and asked.
“Who will secure the starved, beseiged and dispossessed?”
Corrupt political leadership does not attractive men of outstanding integrity; neither can it be expected to enact effective laws to maintain high integrity in government.

The Godfather of organised GLC corporate crap

Institutional integrity – a forgotten value?

Selangor Menteri Besar Abdul Khalid Ibrahim said he has absolutely no ties to Umno corporate figure Daim Zainuddin.
Tun Daim Godfather of Corporate Malaysia -in-story-image
The common theme running through some of Daim’s recent corporate activities — as well as those of his known associates — is divestment.
While not all these deals can be easily tracked, the few that can be gleaned raises interesting questions: the biggest question is why the divestment and is the cash accumulation for a common purpose? Former finance minister Daim Zainuddin however denies it in an interview with KiniBiz.
KiniBiz looks at several deals that involve Daim’s ICB Financial Holdings Group AG.
Daim’s ICB pares down in subsidiaries
After ICB was delisted from the London Alternative Investment Market (AIM) in 2012, industry observers reportedly said that ICB has been paring down its stakes in several subsidiary banks.

Hary Tanoesoedibjo

The most recent divestment appears to be the sale of a 24% block in PT Bank ICB Bumiputera Tbk to PT MNC Kapital Indonesia Tbk, which is controlled by businessman and politician Hary Tanoesoedibjo, on Jan 27, 2014.
Following the sale, ICB still has 45.9% in the relatively small lender listed on the Jakarta Stock Exchange, but media reports speculate that ICB may be looking to pare down further in Bank ICB Bumiputera. It is not immediately known what the 24% shareholding was purchased for.
Prior to that, ICB also reportedly sold its stakes in four African countries — Gambia, Ghana, Guinea and Sierra Leone — to one of Nigeria’s biggest financial institutions, First Bank of Nigeria (FBN) last year. ICB’s operations in these four countries span 28 branches with over 600 staff members.
In Ghana, the central bank Bank of Ghana approved the sale on Sept 24, 2013 and the exercise was completed in November 2013 conditional upon 40% of International Commercial Bank Ghana Limited being offloaded to Ghanaians. At least 25% should be offloaded by Dec 31, 2014 with the rest due for offloading by Dec 31, 2016.
The acquisitions of ICB Guinea, Gambia and Sierra Leone were also completed in November 2013, although pricing details are not immediately available. However, the four acquisitions reportedly boosted FBN’s total assets from US$21.3 billion (RM70.4 billion) as at June 30, 2013 by US$258 million (about RM853.9 million) and is expected to improve FBN’s balance sheet by 1.32%.
Also in 2013, ICB sold its operations in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia to First Merchant Bank Malawi (FMBM), reportedly in a deal worth US$11.5 million (about RM38 million) encompassing 100% of ICB Malawi, 70% of ICB Mozambique as well as 62% of ICB Zambia.
These acquisitions, completed in June 2013, boosted FMBM’s assets by about US$9.5 million (RM31.36 million).
Notably before its delisting in 2012, ICB had also agreed to sell its entire Bangladesh-based subsidiary ICB Islamic Bank Bangladesh to a consortium comprising Summit Industrial & Mercantile Corp (Pvt) Ltd, Cosmopolitan Traders (Pvt) Ltd, Alliance Holdings Ltd, Summit Alliance Port Ltd and Shore Cap Holdings Ltd for US$55 million or RM182 million, according to foreign news reports in mid-2010.
However Daim clarified today that he still owns the Bangladesh operations of ICB.
While the total numbers involved in these divestments are difficult to pinpoint, what figures are available add up to RM220 million.
Daim’s associates divesting too?
Along with the apparent divestments by ICB, several corporate figures said to be linked to Daim also appear to be liquidating some of their holdings. KiniBiz takes a look at some deals that could be gleaned.
Figures-linked-to-Daim-Zainuddin fixed
Making headlines recently was low-key Robert Tan Hua Choon, who exited wooden product manufacturer Malaysia Aica (Maica) late last month. Tan and parties related to him signed a deal to sell 32.39 million shares in Maica to property developer Ter Leong Yap for RM33.39 million in cash.
Notably of late Tan’s shipping firm PDZ Holdings, one among his many listed companies including his flagship industrial manufacturer Jasa Kita, has seen much interest in the market lately, consistently appearing in the top actives list. Earlier this month it was reported that PDZ was planning to venture into oil and gas.
Another figure often linked to Daim, Chua Ma Yu, was said to be selling his Menara CMY, according to people familiar with real estate developments. While details are scarce, the price bandied about was around RM1,000 per square feet (psf) for the building with a total lettable area of about 85,000 square feet. This puts the sale price at around RM85 million.
Sources say Menara CMY had been sold but it is not immediately clear at what price and to whom at press time.
Daim 06In addition, property developer Plenitude, which is also said to be linked to Daim, sold fifteen parcels of freehold land in Kuala Lumpur measuring 153,839 sq ft for RM49.22 million in cash in mid-2013. The rationale for the sale, based on Plenitude’s regulatory filing, was to “unlock land value and to realise the capital gain from investment in the land”.
Plenitude had been trading at record levels recently, hitting an all-time high of RM2.74 in late November last year.  Today the company ended the trading session at RM2.59, up 2 sen.
Mohd Razali Abdul Rahman, formerly of Landmarks and still chairman Peremba, recently exited Focal Aims Holdings when Eco World initiated a reverse takeover exercise. He was last reported to have some 7.3% in Focal Aims, which appears to be valued at about RM25 million based on the offer price of RM1.40 per share.
Interestingly Mohd Razali’s holding company Kerbet had also reportedly divested some of its interests in Irish oil and gas provider Kentz in a deal worth £64.5 million (about RM355.8 million) in 2012, reducing its stake from 26.5% to 13.64%.
Taken over by Kerbet in 1994, Kentz was listed on London’s AIM in 2008 when Kerbet reportedly started reducing its 80% shareholding and has since gone to London’s main market. While Kerbet was reportedly owned by Peremba previously, media reports say control of Kerbet was transferred by Peremba to its chairman Mohd Razali and a non-executive Hassan Abas in 2006.
‘Sitting on cash’
It is very difficult to pinpoint recent corporate activities by most figures linked to Daim, given that many have kept a low profile in recent years.
However the emerging pattern from what can be ascertained is that Daim and those who have been linked to him in the past appear to be raising funds.
When queried by KiniBiz, a source familiar with Daim’s corporate circle admitted that his associates are “sitting on cash and waiting for something”, but declined to say further.
Anwar IbrahimMarket talk speculates that the apparent fund-raising may be linked to political reasons, although details are sketchy. It is notable however that in the recent Kajang by-election saga involving Parti Keadilan Rakyat leader Anwar Ibrahim, one reason that has been thrown about in explanation is that an Umno leadership change is imminent, although this appears unsubstantiated.
Another speculation that has appeared is that Daim and his alleged associates are positioning themselves for a return to Malaysia. However this is unsubstantiated too.
Daim: I am not returning
In an exclusive interview with Daim, KiniBiz asked Daim about market talk saying that his return to corporate Malaysia is imminent. In response, Daim firmly said that he is not.
“I am too old already,” said Daim to KiniBiz. “That should be for the next generation.”
img_b80a-d791When asked why he is winding down his interests in ICB, Daim again cited his old age. He said that he had offered the stakes to local banks but they were not interested, perhaps due to Africa’s distance.
At present, said Daim, he had sold most of his banking interests apart from those in Bangladesh, Laos and Albania, adding that he had also sold a bit in Indonesia.
Pressed further, Daim said that the cash is “for charity”. When KiniBiz asked whether he is currently cash-rich to look out for investment opportunities, Daim firmly said no.
“It is up to trustees what they do, I am not involved,” said Daim to KiniBiz.
Notably, Daim had previously set-up two foundations, Yayasan Haji Zainuddin and Yayasan Pok Rafeah which were named after his father and mother respectively.
As for the apparent divestments of corporate figures said to be linked to him, Daim denies any knowledge of what they might have in plans.
“No, I have not seen them for a long time,” said Daim. “They do their own business and they decide in which direction they want to take the business.”
As for the title Godfather of Corporate Malaysia, Daim said: “They call me that, that title should go to my friend Robert Kuok.”

Book on Tun Daim Zainuddin

Book on Tun Daim Zainuddin
“An excellent writer and a piece of Malaysian history . . .and its “politics” since “Independence”
and a great Biographie . . .”
University of Qatar
author’s CV http://www.qu.edu.qa/doc/business/
Contributed by Krishna Singh
Books have been written about Tun Daim Zainuddin (pic above), but not many people know who the real Daim is. He is famous for being taciturn. Everyone knows that Daim is the silent type; so silent, in fact, that the victims of his scheming and conniving have fallen like ten pins without ever knowing what hit them. He has, on the quiet, made a career of shooting poison darts, laying booby traps. and knifing friend or foe in the back. His hand is never seen, but his mark is everywhere. Truth to tell, he has been at the root of many national crises, but his name has never been smudged, thanks to the wealth he wields and his bond of friendship with Dr. Mahathir.
Most members of Umno’s new generation are aware that Daim is an acquisitive millionaire and a macho man with a taste of young women, but they concede him these weaknesses because they see in him a clean and competent Economic Adviser to the Government. But the generation of Harun Idris, Musa Hitam and Manan Othman to name just a few of the old hands – they are the ones to ask in order to discover who the real Daim is. It was Datuk Harun who plucked Daim up from the depths of failure in the salt business. Daim’s wife, Mahani and Harun’s wife, Salmah were good friends and an influential pair in the early 1970s. It was wife power that moved Harun to give Daim 160 acres of prime Kampung Pandan land. And thus Syarikat Maluri was born.
There is no use speculating over how much Daim paid Harun. After all, the two were fast friends. For the gory details, just ask Low Kiok Bow or Thamby Chik. They can relate how Daim cheated a land broker and greased Selangor state executive councillor and Mahathir’s brother-in-law, Ahmad Razali for that piece of land.
Of course, Daim still had to pay for the land. In those days, it was not easy to borrow from a bank. Hence, he was forced to corrupt Bank Bumiputra. Lorraine Osman and Rais Saniman know how much he spent. Manan Othman can no doubt confirm the figure, he was so close to Daim that they tried to share a girl friend, with Manan often borrowing the bedroom at Daim’s office in Taman Maluri.
Daim’s elevation as Senator and, subsequently, Minister of Finance, was part of Mahathir’s strategic plan. Mahathir’s choice should surprise no one, after all the two were intimate friends from the same kampung in Seberang Perak, Alor Setar. Upon becoming Prime Minister on 16 July, 1981, the first thing on Mahathir’s mind was how to sideline his archenemy, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. Daim told everyone he had no interest in politics, but all the while he was confident of getting the Finance Minister’s job after a stint with the Senate. A few months after joining the Senate, Daim became Chairman of Fleet, which owned the New Straits Times. In 1984, he finally got his dream job and became the third most important man in the Federal Cabinet, after the Prime Minister and his deputy.
Musa Hitam, the Deputy Prime Minister, was at first oblivious of the closet ties between Mahathir and Daim. Innocently, he expressed to Mahathir his disquiet over Daim’s wheeling and dealing, particularly his award of projects and contracts to his own associates and cronies. It must have baffled him when his complaints fell on deaf ears although he was Deputy Prime Minister, he has no say when it came to economic matters, particularly privatisation and the assignment (to supporters) of economic projects. How disappointed Musa must have been to find that Daim could not care less about his effort to help his supporters secure some projects or contracts. Daim succeeded in making millionaires of such cronies of Wan Azmi, Halim Saad, Tajuddin Ramli,
Samsuddin Hassan, Razali Rahman and Tan Sri Basir, but Musa in the end was cast off as a poor ex-DPM. Musa once complained to Mahathir that Daim had stolen a number of supporters’ project proposals, but again Mahathir ignored him. These were the first acts in the eventual breakup of the Mahathir-Musa partnership. As the interests of Mahathir and Razaleigh bloated, Musa got squeezed out.
Many Umno members assume that Razaleigh is Musa’s number one enemy. In fact, the reason for the 1986 split in Umno must fall on Daim. It was he who drove Musa to the edge until he had no choice but to resign. Again, Daim’s man of few words demeanour to his advantage. Few knew of his behind-the-scenes role in that Umno rupture not many more know it today. One really should not wonder why Musa called a truce Razaleigh and the two decided to collaborate in the 1987 fight, the one that eventually caused Umno to be outlawed. At that time, Daim was almost invincible, what support coming from such strongmen as Sanusi Junid and Anwar Ibrahim. The comradeship of the three was rock solid, and the Musa-Razaleigh camp could do nothing except to make a joke of it by giving them the nicknames AIDS.
The formation of the new Umno, Daim and Mahathir had first to get rid of the Lord President, Tun Salleh Abas. Again, Daim was the chief plotter in the sacking of the pious and respected Tun Salleh, and his replacement with Tun Hamid Omar, a playboy and chronic gambler, but Mahathir’s and Daim’s schoolmate. The appointment of Tun Hamid Omar triggered the collapse of the integrity and the independence of the judiciary.
Finance Minister, Daim persuaded Mahathir to give the Economic Planning Unit and Treasury full power in implementing the privatisation policy. Hence, it was no longer necessary to call for tenders for government projects. Instead, the projects were awarded directly to favoured companies. And so began the era of wealth accumulation by him and his cohorts. The United Engineers Company, bought for RM2, changed into a multi-million- ringgit corporation. As Finance Minister, Daim practically ordered banks to lend to companies that he himself owned. And no Daim crony every complained of difficulty in securing bank credit. Indeed, bankers lived in fear of Daim. Having appointed Wan Azmi and Basir to head Malayan Banking and Bank Bumiputra, he would give any project to any of his cronies because funding was not an issue.
If those physical projects were not enough, Daim also took every opportunity to take wealth from the share market as well. Every time the Treasury approved a company for listing on the stock exchange, Daim cronies received their lion’s shares. That was how Southern Bank, Resort World, Sports Toto, Berjaya, Tanjong and scores of other blue chip firms landed with Daim and Company. Once, when share values were high, Daim boasted among friends that his visible wealth alone totalled RM65 billion. To shut the mouth of Barisan Nasional leaders, Daim gave lucrative projects to Samy Vellu and Ling Liong Sik so that their children could be big-shots in batches.
Daim managed to fool Umno members into believing that Mahathir would not let him go although he had asked to be relieved of his Cabinet post on a number of occasions. With Musa and Razaleigh out of the picture, Daim could grab as much wealth as he wanted without even Mahathir stopping him. Besides, he was Umno’s treasurer and he could make it look as if the companies he controlled were those in which the party had a stake.
Daim’s avarice damaged not only his own image as finance minister, but also Mahathir’s and Malaysia ‘s reputation with the international community. It is said that he used to demand exorbitant fees for himself in negotiating contracts involving foreign suppliers. The chairmen of Japan ‘s two biggest banks – the Bank of Tokyo and Sanwa Bank – once complained to Mahathir that his Finance Minister demanded commissions that were too high when negotiating yen loans. Margaret Thatcher, too, has complained about Daim’s role as a commissioned agent. He had – or still has – accounts in Zurich , London , Hong Kong, Tokyo , Singapore , Caymen Island , Channel Island and Virgin Island . Indeed, instead of keeping his billions in Malaysia , he has stashed them overseas.
With his immense wealth and far-reaching influence, Daim eventually became a burden that Mahathir could no longer bear. In every deal he made, there was something in it for himself. It was not beneath him even to conspire with Lee Kuan Yew to snatch KTM land in Singapore . The Malaysian Cabinet had no knowledge of this. But this issue of Malaysia being cheated by Lee Kuan Yew and Daim is far from over.
Mahathir eventually realised that he had to end Daim’s lordship over the Finance Ministry. And so he told him to quit.
Mahathir worried that if Daim continued as Finance Minister, complaints would come not only from Vincent Tan, Ananda Krishnan, Arumugam and other members of the Malaysian business elite, but also from foreign leaders. Signs of a Daim-related scandal were ominous and it could break anytime in Japan or Britain , therefore, Daim had to go.
Daim’s resignation was planned such that it would not appear as if he had been sacked. Indeed, it does not make sense why a powerful Finance Minister, rich and in control of so many public companies, would suddenly quit simply because he had lost interest in the job. The truth is that he was ordered to resign. Observers will recall that Mahathir’s first comment on the so-called reaction was, ‘He has asked several times for permission to resign, and I have finally allowed it. I hope Daim would not leave the country after resigning’. That statement was pregnant with meaning. Mahathir knew Daim was sulking. So did Anwar and Sanusi. Mahathir retained Daim as Umno Treasurer for a good reason, he wanted to ensure the safety of Umno money, a lot of which was under Daim’s control.
But Daim who holds so many of Mahathir’s secrets, is only a sly one. After resigning, he ran off to live in his San Francisco residence. He told the Malaysian public he wanted to study at Harvard, but in fact he wanted to leave Malaysia . Mahathir, who was familiar with Daim’s antics, pleaded with him to come back, saying he need him to advise on economic matters. Daim returned and announced that Mahathir had named him Economic Adviser to the Government. Rafidah asked Mahathir to confirm this, but all she got was silence. Daim was never formally appointed as Economic Adviser, a post which Tun Raj a Mohar once held. The appointment is the prerogative of the Public Services Department. Daim gave himself the job. To keep Daim happy, Mahathir allowed him to open an office at the Economic Planning Unit, and this strengthened the public perception that he was still in control as far as economic affairs were concerned.
When he was to told to resign as Finance Minister, Daim asked Mahathir to appoint Anwar Ibrahim to the job. Obviously, he thought this would help to ensure that his skeletons would remain closeted. He warned Mahathir of the peril that Rafidah would be to both of them: the secrets they shared would be uncovered. Daim also persuaded Mahathir to appoint Mustapha Mohammad as Anwar’s deputy because these two could be depended on to fill up the holes he had left gaping. Anwar is nobody’s fool, but he sacrificed his idealism to protect his towkay.
As far as we know, no Finance Minster in this world has retired a billionaire, except Daim. In the book Daim yang Diam: Sebuah Biographi (Daim the Silent: A Biography), Daim explains his retirement: ‘I am happy in retirement. It was too heavy a responsibility. In truth, I love the business world. Business is in my blood. I love to make money. I know how to do it. I can do it just by sitting in this chair. On a lucky day, I can make millions.’
Friend of Soros
According to an internal bank analysis, collaborated by the corporate community, and from Daim crony Amin Shah, Daim’s wealth, in ringgit and foreign currencies kept overseas currently amounts to RM20 billion. With so much money at his disposal, Daim can manipulate the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. He showed his hand in 1991, just to prove how much influence he wielded. After selling off his stocks, he made a statement to the effect that the market would crash. And crash it did. As we can all recall, even Mahathir could not help but make a wry remark when Daim boasted that he invested in KLSE only for pocket money. But to his good friend, Daim said he could turn in profit on RM90 million a day when the market was up. When the market plummeted in October 1991 Daim bought back his share on the cheap. When the market turned bullish again 1995 and 1996, Daim made billions of ringgit from it. This, then, is what the work of an economic adviser amounts to.
So it turns out that Soros is not the only big time market manipulator and currency dealer. Daim met Soros twice in London when the ringgit was being hotly traded. Anyway, when the ringgit fell below RM4 to the US dollar, Mahathir asked Daim for help and, according to a source in Singapore, he lost RM1 billion trying to prop up the Malaysian currency. To lose that much in currency trading, imagine how much money he had at his disposal.
The falls in currency and share values put Mahathir in a feverish panic. He knew his policies and his own belligerent attitude were partly to blame. Seeing Mahathir in such a frenzied state, Daim recommended that he declare a state of emergency to enable him to restore the economy and at the same time, bury the corpses that were beginning to stink. We hail the Chief Secretary to the Government and the Solicitor-General for opposing the move.. If Daim’s plan had been followed, Mahathir would turn dictator and the Malaysian economy would be utterly ruined. Having failed to declare an emergency, Mahathir set up the National Economic Action Council, headed by Daim, with the Economic Planning Unit as its Secretariat. The original plan was to give the NEAC complete autonomy, but the Cabinet ministers opposed this for fear that they would lose any vestige of power they had left. Eventually, the council became merely an advisory body, with the Cabinet having final say on its recommendations.
The establishment of the council was a wedge between Anwar and Daim. Thus, two old friends who had together stood behind Mahathir against Musa were now turned against each other. All of the council’s recommendations were rejected by the Cabinet and Bank Negara. Daim openly assailed Bank Negara for dismissing his proposals, such as those relating to interest rates and credit control. We salute the Bank Negara Governor for maintaining a prudent monetary policy in the face of Daim’s bullying and insults. Unlike Daim and his cohorts, Bank Negara’s officials are not self-serving. Daim’s appointment to the NEAC was a major national mistake.
Going by press reports of its deliberations so far, the NEAC’s sole preoccupation is with saving mega corporations from bankruptcy. No doubt, these are Daim-related companies. Daim has yet to show any concern over the rise in the price of chillies, or the leaps in fish prices or how the price of rice has boiled over. Neither has he talked about small businesses in their death throes. Class F contractors going bankrupt or kampung road projects being abandoned. In his dictionary, there are no entries for the small man’s worries, nothing about low-cost houses, water cuts or study funds for the children of poor Malays. In fact, it contains only billion size figures. While the Malaysian economy is close to ruin, Daim remains a billionaire, living a life of glamour, jet setting with his new wife Naimah and the attractive Josephine , an Indian lass who helps him run one of his firms, the International Malaysian Bank.
We have merely given a sketch of who the real Daim is. A thorough account will soon be available in book form. We recommend the book to Umno members, especially those with big ambitions, because they will learn much from its fantastic but true tales of economic and political intrigues. We denounce the likes of Vincent Tan and Tan Phek Khiing for land-grabbing, but perhaps we should ask the Menteri Besar of Johor and the Menteri Besar of Kedah how much land Daim has taken. Ask Sanusi how much Daim paid to the Kedah government for 12,000 acres in Sungai Petani and how much profit he made from them. For 12,000 acres, Osman Arof had to be sacrificed. The true story of the Daim-Sanusi conspiracy in Kedah will be exposed in the book.
Umno is at a crossroads and has to decide wisely where it is going. One road heads to glory, where stability and democratic practice will abide. The other leads to division, autocracy and ultimately, utter destruction. The call for reform, which used to be made only in whispers at small, secretive gatherings, is becoming louder. Umno members, showing that they can no longer contain their restiveness and frustration, have begun to openly debate the need for change, even at party conventions. Can there be a clearer indication that they have reached their tether’s end, that they can no longer stomach the leadership’s undemocratic attitude and the prevalence – whether in the party or the government – of favouritism, cronyism, nepotism, graft and other misdeeds? Malay nationalism is dead and materialism and egoism are running amok.
We cannot depend on the Umno Supreme Council to initiate reform because few of the members have the guts to speak up. In fact, the council has lately been transformed into a monologue theatre. But of course even a monologue can flop without good supporting players – fools, clowns, jesters, attendants and the oh-so- important flatterers. As far as these bit players are concerned, Umno’s ideals and principles are not as important as their jobs. This keep-your-mouth- shut syndrome serves only to embolden the party leadership in its conceit, arrogance and haughtiness. A president has become a dictator. Woe are the Malays and Umno. What is to become of them? That is a question only Umno members can answer.
Professor Mohamed Zain
Professor of Technology & Strategic Management
College of Business & Economics
University of Qatar